Ladakh is famous for its distant mountain beauty and culture. It spans the Great Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges and the upper Indus River Valley. Ladakh is bordered by two of the world's uppermost elevation ranges like the Karakoram in the north and the great Himalayas in the south. The Pakistan occupied Kashmir lies in the west and China in the north and Eastern part and Lahul Spiti of Himachal Pradesh in the South east of the district. Ladakh's racial composition consisted of Mongoloid and a mixed Indo-Aryan population of Mons and Dards. It is now and then called little Tibet due to strong cultural and geographical similarities with Tibet. The approach to Ladakh is always marked with many long walls running 2-3 kms, adorned with engraved stones bearing the mantra "Om Mani Padme Hun" and Chortens which symbolizes Buddha's mind. Through 1962 war among China and India and the part of the Leh was taken by China.